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A Guide to CSE Documentation  

Click below on the type of source you are trying to cite

Print Materials - Books

Print Materials - Periodicals

Internet Sources

Other Sources

References

The following are examples of materials commonly used in the CSE References list, but do not represent all types of resources. For citing sources not mentioned here, consult Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th edition, which is on Reserve at the Circulation Desk in the NCCC Library. The examples listed below are excerpted from, and in some instances adapted from, that publication.  

There are three systems within the CSE documentation style for formatting references: the citation-sequence system, the name-year system, and the citation-name system. This guide reflects the citation-sequence system, which is used at Northwestern Connecticut Community College.

GENERAL FORMATTING PRINCIPLES  

The References list includes works cited in your paper, as well as those consulted but not cited. It begins a new page following the last page of the research paper, but may be included on the paper’s last page if the References list in its entirety fits on that page. Center the title (References) on the top of the page, with 1"  margins on the top, bottom, and sides; if the References list is included on the last page of the research paper, drop down an inch from the end of the paper to begin the References list.  

The general sequence of information in a reference is the author, title, and additional items (as specified in the examples below). State the author’s last name first, followed by the initials of the first and middle (if known) names. If there are 2 to 10 authors, list all; if there are more than 10, list the first ten and add "and others".  The last name and initial of the first name of the author are separated by a space, and there is no space or punctuation between the first and middle initials.  

References are listed and numbered in the order in which each referenced document is first cited in the text (or figure) of the paper. (If a referenced document is already in the References list and is being cited again, the reference number should be the same as previously assigned.) Each reference entry is single-spaced, with double-spacing between each entry. The following is an example of referenced citations in the text of a paper (the numbers appear as superscript) and the corresponding entries in the References list:  

Prevalence studies suggest that in 2000 the number of persons with Alzheimer’s disease in the United States was 4.5 million.1 The percentage of persons with Alzheimer’s disease increases by a factor of two with approximately every five years of age, meaning that 1 percent of 60-year-olds and about 30 percent of 85-year-olds have the disease.2  

References  

1.    Scherr PA, Hebert LE, Bienias JL, Bennett DA, Evans DA. Alzheimer disease in the US population: prevalence estimates using the 2000 Census. Archives of Neurology   2009;60:1119-22.

2.    Jorm AF. Cross-national comparisons of the occurrence of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementias. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1991;240:218-22.  

THE TREATMENT OF FIGURES - TABLES, CHARTS, AND GRAPHS  

Because much scientific writing presents data in the form of figures (tables, charts, and graphs), there are guidelines about their treatment in the text of a paper.  

Place a figure at the top or bottom of the page, as close as possible to its first mention. Label each figure (e.g., Figure 1) and describe it (e.g., Experimental design and temporal difference model). The first figure in the paper will be called Figure 1, and each figure thereafter will be sequentially numbered.  If you are referencing a figure in the text of the paper, do so in parentheses. Figure may be written in full or abbreviated to "Fig.".

CO2 increases yields little warming in the winter hemisphere, and the summer temperature remains well short of the freezing point even at 0.2 bat of CO2 (Fig. 1).  

If the source of the information in the figure needs to be acknowledged, do not number it as a citation to be included in the References list. Rather, acknowledge the source below the Figure description. For example, "Reprinted from . . ." or "Based on . . .".

Print Materials - Books

The bibliographic elements, their sequence, punctuation, and spacing for most references to a book are as follows:  

Author(s) or editor(s). Title. Edition. Translator. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of pages.  

Italicize the title of the book, and capitalize only the first word and proper nouns in the title. A subtitle follows the title of the book after a colon and space, and only proper nouns are capitalized.  

When stating the place of publication, if more than one city is listed, use only the first. The state, province, or country may be added (in parentheses) to clarify, using the 2-letter postal code abbreviation. If the place of publication is not known, state in square brackets "[place unknown]".  

State the publisher’s name as it appears in the publication (using the same capitalization and punctuation found there), and omit the introductory article "The"  Well-known publishers’ names may be abbreviated, such that "J. B. Lippincott Company" could become "Lippincott."  Use abbreviations with caution, however, to avoid confusion. If more than one publisher is found in a document, use the first one given. If the publisher is not known, state in square brackets "[publisher unknown]".  

If the publisher is a government agency (which has a hierarchy of names), use the level that is the one most likely to be known by the reader. For example, if the publisher is the Climate Prediction Center of the National Weather Service (which is under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which is under the US Department of Commerce), use "National Weather Service (US), Climate Prediction Center" as the publisher" not "Department of Commerce (US), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Climate Prediction Center".  

If the date of publication is not known, but the copyright date is known, use the year of copyright, preceded by "c", as "c2000". If neither the year of publication nor the copyright year can be found, state in square brackets "[date unknown]".                    

Book with Author(s)  

Voet D, Voet JG. Biochemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1990. 1223 p.  

Book with Editor(s)

Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press; 1990. 1811 p.  

Book with a Translator  

Luzikov VN. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Galkin AV, translator. New York: Consultants Bureau; 1985. 362 p.     

Organization as Author  

American Medical Association. Current procedural terminology: cpt 2004. Chicago: AMA Press; 2003.  525 p.     

If an organization is the author and there are several levels of hierarchy in the organization named on the publication, give the parts of the name in descending hierarchical order, separated by commas. In citing organizations that are national bodies such as government agencies, if a nationality is not included in the name, place the country after the name, using the 2-letter ISO code.  

National Research Council (US), Subcommittee to Review the Hanford Thyroid Study. Final Results and Report. Review of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study draft final report. Washington (DC): National Academy Press; 2000. 228 p.  

If the author is a government agency (which has a hierarchy of names), use the level that is the one most likely to be known by the reader. For example, if the author is the Climate Prediction Center of the National Weather Service (which is under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which is under the US Department of Commerce), use "National Weather Service (US), Climate Prediction Center " as the author " not "Department of Commerce (US), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Climate Prediction Center ".

Book with No (or Unnamed) Author  

Wine, women and war: a diary of disillusionment. New York: J. H. Sears and Company; 1926. 321 p.  

 Book Published in a Subsequent Edition  

Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press; 1990. 1811 p.  

Volume in a Multivolume Work    

Kerner AJ. The natural history of plants: their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution. Volume 2. London: Gresham Publishing Company; 1904. (Note: pages are not stated.)  

Volume in a Multivolume Work, or Series (Volume with Separate Title)  

When a book has a collective title in addition to its own title, it is part of a series; the series title (the collective title) may be included in the reference, but is not required. When used, series information follows the date of publication and pagination, and is enclosed in parentheses. State the name of the series, capitalizing only the first word and proper nouns, and follow it with a semicolon and the volume number.

Ambudkar SV, Gottesman MM, editors. ABC transporters: biochemical, cellular, and molecular aspects. San Diego (CA): Academic Press; 1998. 853 p. (Methods in enzymology; vol. 292).

Part of a Book (e.g. Chapter with Different Author(s) or Entry in an Anthology)  

Kuret JA, Murad F. Adenohypypophyseal hormones and related substances. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon Press; 1990. p 1334-60.  

Part of a Book (e.g. Specific Chapter or Section)  

Shakelford RT. Surgery of the alimentary tract. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunders; 1978. Chapter 2,  Esophagoscopy; p. 29-40.  

Print Materials - Periodicals

Month abbreviations are written as follows:  

            January          (is written as)          Jan

            February                                      Feb

            March                                          Mar

            April                                            Apr

            May                                            May

            June                                            Jun

            July                                             Jul

            August                                        Aug

            September                                   Sep

            October                                       Oct

            November                                    Nov

            December                                    Dec                                             

 

Journal Articles

General format (note order of elements, spacing, italicization, and punctuation): Author(s). Article title. Journal title year month;volume number(issue number):inclusive pages.  

Example:  

You CH, Lee KY, Chey RY, Menguy R. Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gastroenterology 1980 Aug;79(2):311-4.  

Capitalize the first word in the title of the journal and all the following words, except prepositions, articles, the to  in infinitives, and coordinating conjunctions (and, for, or).  

If the pages are discontinuous (i.e., the article starts in one part of the journal, skips pages, and continues further back in the journal), an example of how they would read is as follows: 311-3, 323.                   

For weekly journals, the "month" information includes the day of the week. If volume and/or issues numbers are given as Roman numerals, state them as Arabic numbers.    

Newspaper Article  

General format (note order of elements, spacing, italicization, and punctuation): Author(s). Article title. Newspaper title (edition). Date of publication;section:page number article begins on (column number).

Example:  

Weiss R. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). 2003 Apr 11;Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

Magazine Article  

Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers does not address the documentation of magazine articles. Use, therefore, the Journal Article guidelines.  

Internet Sources

Before attempting to create an entry in the References list, first consult the general formatting rules for print materials, earlier in these guidelines.  

General formatting notes:  

There are three dates of importance in citing Internet resources: 1) the date the publication was placed on the Internet, or, alternatively, was copyrighted; 2) the latest date any update or revision occurred; and 3) the date the person doing the citing actually saw the publication on the Internet.  

No ending period is used after a URL in a citation unless it concludes with a forward slash ("/"). This is because the period might interfere with the hyperlink.  

If a URL does not fit on one line, break it after a slash or other punctuation mark.  

Examples of types of information that might be included in the “Notes" section of the citation are the language of the item (if other than English), any special viewing requirements (such as a particular Web browser version or software), or information about the creation of the publication (such as creation for a particular conference or commemorative event).

Homepage/Entire Website  

General format (note order of elements, spacing, and punctuation): 

Title of Homepage [medium designator]. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication  [date updated; date cited]. Available from: URL and Notes.  

Example:

APSnet: plant pathology online [Internet]. St. Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994-2005 [cited 2005 Jun 20]. Available from: http://www.apsnet.org/.  

 Book on the Internet  

General format (note order of elements, spacing, italicization, and punctuation):

Author(s). Title of book [medium designator]. edition. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date cited]. Available from: URL and Notes.  

Example:

Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM. Introduction to genetic analysis  [Internet]. 7th ed. New York (NY): W. H. Freeman & Co.; c2000 [cited 2005 May 31]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=iga

Journal Article on the Internet  

General format (note order of elements, spacing, italicization, and punctuation):

Author(s). Title of article. Title of journal (edition) [medium designator]. Date of publication [date updated; date cited];volume(issue):pages. Available from: URL and Notes. 

Example:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119-1120. Available from: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119doi:10.1136.330.7500.1119

Article from a Database or Website  

General format (note order of elements, spacing, italicization, and punctuation):

Author(s). Article title. Journal title date;volume(issue):pages. In: Name of database [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date of revision or modification; Date of citation or access]. Pages/extent of the article [in brackets if surmised/not stated]. Available from: URL and Notes.    

(If the material is from a subscription database [i.e. one not freely available on the Internet], in the Notes section, state Subscription required.)

Example:

Chilton PM, Rezzoug F, Fugier-Vivier I, Weeter LA, Xu H, Huang Y, Ray MB, Ildstad, ST. Flt3-ligand treatment prevents diabetes in NOD mice. Diabetes 2004 Aug;53(8):1995. In: Expanded Academic ASAP [Internet]. Farmington Hills (MI): Thomson Gale; c2004 [date updated 2004 Sep 13; date cited 2004  Sep 13]. [about 15 p.]. Available from: http://web1infotrac.galegroup.com/itw/      infomark/656/306/510643w1/purl=rc1_EAIM_0_A120259750&dyn=7!A12 xrn_1_0_ A120259750?sw_aep=24032   Subscription required.

Other Sources

Audiovisual Materials  

General format: Author(s) or editor(s). Title [medium designator]. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; date. Physical description. Notes.  

Example:

Johnson D, editor. Surgical techniques in orthopaedics: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [videodisc]. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; c2002. 1 videodisc: sound, color, 12 in.

Interviews, Oral Presentations at a Meeting, or Other Personal Communications

Interviews, oral presentations, and other personal, non-published communications are not cited in the References list. However, in the text of the paper, state (in parentheses) the nature and source of the information and that the material is not included in the References list. For example:               

and most meningiomas proved to be inoperable (a 1943 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced), but a few were not.                                                                

   

 

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